Acta Nat. Sci.   |  e-ISSN: 2718-0638

Review article | Acta Natura et Scientia 2021, Vol. 2(2) 124-129

A Mini-Review on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Some Smoked Fish

Nuray Çiftçi & Deniz Ayas

pp. 124 - 129   |  DOI:   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2107-26-0002.R1

Published online: November 20, 2021  |   Number of Views: 111  |  Number of Download: 628


The effects of sources that cause pollution in the environment in organisms can occur in different ways. The participation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one of the pollutants caused by organic materials, into aquatic ecosystems by washing from the atmosphere and soil causes accumulation in aquatic ecosystems and is easily transported to the upper trophic zones through the food chain. Consumption of these products with high nutritional value poses a threat to human health. The processing of these products, which are widely consumed as fresh, with different processes is another way to remain under the influence of PAH. As it is known, PAHs are formed as a result of pyrolysis and prosynthesis of organic materials that are not sufficiently burned. In this sense, smoked products that are not produced under suitable conditions may carry a risk for the formation of PAH. In this study, the factors that cause PAH formation in smoked products and the appropriate processing processes developed to eliminate these factors were compiled.

Keywords: PAH, Smoked Fish, Formation, Toxicity, Prevention

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Ciftci, N. & Ayas, D. (2021). A Mini-Review on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Some Smoked Fish . Acta Natura et Scientia, 2(2), 124-129. doi: 10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.06

Ciftci, N. and Ayas, D. (2021). A Mini-Review on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Some Smoked Fish . Acta Natura et Scientia, 2(2), pp. 124-129.

Chicago 16th edition
Ciftci, Nuray and Deniz Ayas (2021). "A Mini-Review on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Some Smoked Fish ". Acta Natura et Scientia 2 (2):124-129. doi:10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.06.

  1. Abraha, B., Admassu, H., Mahmud, A., Tsighe, N., Shui, X. W., & Fang, Y. (2018). Effect of processing methods on nutritional and physico-chemical composition of fish: a review. MedCrave Online Journal of Food Processing & Technology, 6(4), 376-382. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. Akpan, V., Lodovici, M., & Dolara, P. (1994). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fresh and smoked fish samples from the three Nigerian cities. Buletin Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 53, 246-253. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  3. Başak, S., Şengör, G. F., & Telli Karakoç, F. (2010). The detection of potential carcinogenic PAH using HPLC procedure in two different smoked fish, case study: Istanbul/Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 10(3), 351-355. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  4. Ceylan, Z., & Şengör, G. (2015). Dumanlanmış su ürünleri ve polisiklik aromatik hidrokarbonlar (PAH’s) [smoked seafood and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s)]. Gıda ve Yem Bilimi – Teknolojisi Dergisi, 15, 27-33. [Google Scholar]
  5. Changrasekhar, T. C., & Kaveriappa, K. M. (1985). A process for reduction of benzo(a)pyrene content in smoked oil sardine. In A. Reilley (Ed.), Spoilage of tropical fish and product development (pp. 262–266). FAO Fisheries Rep. No. 317, Rome. [Google Scholar]
  6. Commission Regulation (EU). (2011). No: 835/2011 of 19 August 2011 amending Regulation (EC) No: 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foodstuff. [Google Scholar]
  7. Duedahl-Olesen, L., Aaslyng, M., Meinert, L., Christensen, T., Jensen, A. H., & Binderup, M. L. (2015). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish barbecued meat. Food Control, 57, 169-176. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  8. Duedahl-Olesen, L., White, S., & Binderup, M. L. (2006). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish smoked fish and meat products. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, 26(3), 163-184. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  9. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). (2008). Scientific opinion of the panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the European Commission on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food. The EFSA Journal, 724, 1-114. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  10. Hokkanen, M., Luhtasela, U., Kostamo, P., Ritvanen, T., Peltonen, K., & Jestoi, M. (2018). Critical effects of smoking parameters on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in traditionally smoked fish and meat products in Finland. Journal of Chemistry, 2018, 2160958. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  11. Horner, W. F. A. (1997). Preservation of fish by curing (drying, salting and smoking). In G. M. Hall (Ed.), fish processing technology. Springer. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  12. Jinadasa, B. K. K. K., Monteau, F., & Fowler, S. W. (2020). Review of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish and fisheries products; a Sri Lankan perspective. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(17), 20663-20674. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  13. Jira, W., Ziegenhals, K., & Speer, K. (2006). PAK in geräucherten Fleischerzeugnissen nach den neuen EU-Anforderungen. Fleischwirtchaft, 86(10), 103-106. [Google Scholar]
  14. Kannappan, S., Indra Jasmine, G., Jeyachandran, P., & Tamil Selvi, A. (2000). Polyaromatic hydrocarbons in processed fishery products. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 37(6), 596-601. [Google Scholar]
  15. Kato, T., Kikugawa, K., & Hayatsu, H. (1986). Occurrence of the mutagens 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylmiidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline(MeIQx) and 2-Amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-Me2IQx) in some Japanese smoked, dried fish products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 34(5), 810-814. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  16. Kikugawa, K., Kato, T., & Hayatsu, H. (1986). Formation of mutagenic substances during smoking and drying (Baikan) of bonito meat. Eisei Kagaku, 32(5), 379-383. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  17. Kurko, V. I., & Mezenova, O. J. (1985). Diffusion of phenol compounds in fish meat during smokeless electrostatic smoking. Rybnoe Khozyaistvo, 7, 50-52. [Google Scholar]
  18. Lawrence, J. F., & Weber, D. F. (1984). Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some Canadian commercial fish, shellfish, and meat products by liquid chromatography with confirmation by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 32(4), 789-793. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  19. Mahugija, J. A. M., & Njale, E. (2018). Effects of washing on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in smoked fish. Food Control, 93, 139-143. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  20. Miler, K. M. B., & Sikorski, Z. E. (1990). Smoking. In Z. E. Sikorski (Ed.), Seafood: resources nutritional composition and preservation (pp. 163–180). CRC Press. [Google Scholar]
  21. Mihalca, G. L., Tiţa, O., Tiţa, M., & Mihalca, A. (2011). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish from three smoke-houses in Brasov county. Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies, 17(4), 392-397. [Google Scholar]
  22. Mondagere, A. K. (1986). Smoke related N-nitroso compounds in cured meat systems. [Ph.D. Thesis. Michigan State University]. [Google Scholar]
  23. Moret, S., Dudine, A., & Conte, L. S. (2000). Processing effects on the polyaromatic hydrocarbon content of grapeseed oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 77(12), 1289-1292. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  24. Nistor, C. (1985). Prezenta unor hidrocarburi policiclice aromatice in peştele afumat. Igiena, 34(3), 227-230. [Google Scholar]
  25. Öz, E. (2020). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as food toxicant in smoked fishes. Atatürk University Journal of Agricultural Faculty, 51(1), 109-118. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  26. Palm, L. M. N., Carboo, D., Yeboah, P. O., Quasie, W. J., Gorleku, M. A., & Darko, A. (2011). Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in smoked fish from Ghana. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3(5), 332-338. [Google Scholar]
  27. Petrun, A. C., & Rubenchik, B. L. (1966). On the possibility of appearance of the carcinogenous agent 3,4 benzpyrene in electrically smoked fish. Vrazhednoe Delo, 2, 93-95. [Google Scholar]
  28. Pirsaheb, M, Irandost, M., Asadi, F., Fakhri, Y., & Asadi, A. (2018). Evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish: a review and meta-analysis. Toxin Reviews, 39(3), 1-9. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  29. Potthast, K. (1978). Verfahren des Räucherns und ihr Einfluss auf den Gehalt an 3,4-Benzpyren und anderen Inhaltsstoffen des Räucherrauches in geräucherten Fleischerzeugnissen. Die Fleischwirtschaft, 58(3), 340-348. [Google Scholar]
  30. Reinik, M., Tamme, T., Roasto, M., Juhkam, K., Tenno, T., & Kiis, A. (2007). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in meat products and estimated PAH intake by children and the general population in Estonia. Food Additives & Contaminants, 24(4), 429-437. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  31. Roper, H., Heyns, K., Günther, W., & Steinig, J. (1981). Nitrosamin-Spurenanalysen von Anchosen und Räucherfischen. Chemie, Mikrobiologie, Technologie der Lebensmittel, 7, 13-17. [Google Scholar]
  32. SCF. (2002). Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the risks to human health of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food. SCF/CS/CNTM/PAH/29 Final. Brussels: European Commission, Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General. Bartoszek, 2002. [Google Scholar]
  33. Silva, B. O., Adetunde, O. T., Oluseyi, T. O., Olayinka, K. O., & Alo, B. I. (2011). Effects of the methods of smoking on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some locally consumed fishes in Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science, 5(7), 384-391. [Google Scholar]
  34. Simko, P. (1991). Changes of benzo(a)pyrene contents in smoked fish during storage. Food Chemistry, 40, 293-300. [Google Scholar]
  35. Slámová, T., Fraňková, A., & Banout, J. (2021). Influence of traditional Cambodian smoking practices on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish processed in the Tonle Sap area, Cambodia. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 100, 103902. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  36. Stołyhwo, A., & Sikorski, Z. E. (2005). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked fish - a critical review. Food Chemistry, 91(2), 303-311. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  37. Storelli, M. M., Stuffler, R. G., & Marcotrigiano, G. O. (2003). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane, and hexachlorobenzene residues in smoked seafood. Journal of Food Protection, 66(6), 1095–1099. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  38. Tilgner, D. J., & Miler, K. (1963). The possibilities of eliminating carcinogens from curing smoke. Przemysł Spozywczy, 17(2), 85-90. [Google Scholar]
  39. Tilgner, D. J., & Daun, H. (1969). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (polynuclears) in smoked foods. Residue Reviews, 27, 19-41. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  40. TFC. (2014). Turkish Food Codex Regulation on Contaminants. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock. Ankara, Turkey. Retrieved on July 26, 2021, from [Google Scholar]
  41. Wierzchowski, J., & Gajewska, R. (1972). Determination of 3,4-benzpyrene in smoked fish. Bromatologia i Chemia Toksykologiczna, 5(4), 481-486 (in Polish). [Google Scholar]
  42. White, R. H., Howard, J. W., & Barnes, C. J. (1971). Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in liquid smoke flavors. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 19(1), 143-146. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  43. Wretling, S., Eriksson, A., Eskhult, G. A., & Larsson, B. (2010). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Swedish smoked meat and fish. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 23(3), 264-272. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  44. Zabik, M. E., Booren, A., Zabik, M. J., Welch, R., & Humphrey, H. (1996). Pesticide residues, PCBs and PAHs in baked, charbroiled, salt boiled and smoked Great Lakes lake trout. Food Chemistry, 55(3), 231-239. [Google Scholar] [Crossref]