Acta Nat. Sci.   |  e-ISSN: 2718-0638

Original article | Acta Natura et Scientia 2023, Vol. 4(2) 126-143

Is Popularity Good for Plant Conservation? Impacts of “Plantito and Plantita Culture” in Valencia City, Bukidnon, Philippines  

Felice A. Beligolo & Dave P. Buenavista

pp. 126 - 143   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2023.354.3   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2303-25-0002.R1

Published online: September 09, 2023  |   Number of Views: 74  |  Number of Download: 303


Abstract

Commercial trading of plants is one of the most unregulated money-making industries in the world, especially in Asia. In the Philippines, many plant species, especially the endemics are already threatened of extinction. One of the threats faced by these species is the commercial trade of ornamental plants. Though prohibited under the wildlife resources conservation and protection laws, the trade persists due to their popularity in social media and local plant collectors. As such, this research aimed to quantitatively assess the illegal trade of ornamental plants in Valencia City, Bukidnon, Philippines. Specifically, it aimed to i) determine the socio-demographic profile of traders, ii) determine the species richness of the ornamental plants illegally traded, iii) determine the quantity of ornamental plant species illegally traded, iv) identify factors that drive the exploitation of the ornamental plants, and v) determine the distribution of the ornamental plants in different areas of Valencia City. The research adopted a covert research approach to monitor the plant trade activities in various street markets of Valencia City, Bukidnon. Observations and interviews have been discretely recorded using mobile phones and audio recorder to collect the data. The survey included both the wild species and cultivated ornamental plants. A total of 140 morphotypes (species, cultivars, hybrids, and varieties) belonging to 60 genera and 33 botanical families were recorded. A total of 1, 473 individual plants were recorded in five barangays of Valencia City. Aroids or arums of the Family Araceae were the most traded and collected ornamental plants with 10 genera and 48 morphotypes. This is followed by Acanthaceae (3 genera; 13 morphotypes), Asparagaceae (3 genera; 12 morphotypes), Commelinaceae (3 genera; 12 morphotypes), Euphorbiaceae (3 genera; 6 morphotypes), Orchidaceae (3 genera; 5 morphotypes) and Polypodiaceae (2 genera; 5 morphotypes).

Keywords: Illegal plant trade, Ornamental plants, Conservation, Mindanao, Philippines


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Beligolo, F.A. & Buenavista, D.P. (2023). Is Popularity Good for Plant Conservation? Impacts of “Plantito and Plantita Culture” in Valencia City, Bukidnon, Philippines   . Acta Natura et Scientia, 4(2), 126-143. doi: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.354.3

Harvard
Beligolo, F. and Buenavista, D. (2023). Is Popularity Good for Plant Conservation? Impacts of “Plantito and Plantita Culture” in Valencia City, Bukidnon, Philippines   . Acta Natura et Scientia, 4(2), pp. 126-143.

Chicago 16th edition
Beligolo, Felice A. and Dave P. Buenavista (2023). "Is Popularity Good for Plant Conservation? Impacts of “Plantito and Plantita Culture” in Valencia City, Bukidnon, Philippines   ". Acta Natura et Scientia 4 (2):126-143. doi:10.29329/actanatsci.2023.354.3.

References
  1. Abreo, N. A. S., & Kobayashi, V. (2021a). First evidence of marine litter associated with COVID-19 in Davao Gulf, Mindanao, Philippines. Philippine Journal of Science, 150(5), 1145–1149. [Google Scholar]
  2. Abreo, N. A. S., & Kobayashi, V. B. (2021b). Citizen science highlights litter associated with COVID-19 as a potential threat on the island of Mindanao, Philippines: a marine biodiversity hotspot. Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, 10(2), 132–136. https://doi.org/10.21463/jmic.2021.10.2.09 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  3. Ambrose, G., Das, K., Fan, Y., & Ramaswami, A. (2020). Is gardening associated with greater happiness of urban residents? A multi-activity, dynamic assessment in the Twin-Cities region, USA. Landscape and Urban Planning, 198(103776), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2020.103776 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  4. Betanio, J., & Buenavista, D. (2018). Elevational pattern of orchid rarity and endemism in Mt. Kalatungan, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Journal of Tropical Life Science, 8(2), 108–115. https://doi.org/10.11594/jtls.08.02.03 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  5. Buenavista, D. P. (2017). Contributions to the orchid flora of Mindanao long-term ecological research sites, Philippines. Biologica Nyssana, 8(1), 31–38. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.963339 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  6. Bulmer, M. (1982). When is disguise justified? Alternatives to covert participant observation. Qualitative Sociology, 5, 251–264. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00986753 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  7. Cabaobao, A. M. P., Crispino, M. S. M., Gorre, A. J. J., & Diquito, T. J. A. (2021). A perimeter tracing and monitoring of endangered plants in selected areas in Digos City: Basis for nature conservation program. SSRN, 291–302. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3901243 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  8. Calvey, D. (2017). Covert Research: The Art, Politics and Ethics of Undercover Fieldwork. SAGE. [Google Scholar]
  9. Canuto, L. M., Feliciano, J. G. S., Lacanlale, L. Y. L., Lubo, M. A. L., Mendoza, B. A. A., & Torres, J. E. D. (2020). Plantita. Katipunan, 6, 182-194. [Google Scholar]
  10. Chua, L. S. L., Kiew, R., & Chan, Y. M. (2009). Assessing conservation status of Peninsular Malaysian Begonias (Begoniaceae). Blumea: Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography, 54, 94–98. https://doi.org/10.3767/000651909X474131 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  11. Cruz, N. (2020a). Jinkee Pacquiao goes viral for expensive plant that costs approximately P20,000. Retrieved on May 21, 2021, from https://www.preview.ph/culture/jinkee-pacquiao-viral-expensive-plant-a00300-20200930?ref=aside_popular [Google Scholar]
  12. Cruz, N. (2020b). Aubrey Miles paid P300,000 for her most expensive plant. Retrieved on May 21, 2021, from https://www.preview.ph/culture/price-aubrey-miles-most-expensive-plant-a00300-20201001 [Google Scholar]
  13. Dalangin, J. J. G., Mc Arthur, J. M. B., Salvador, J. B. M., & Bismonte, A. B. (2021). The impact of social media influencers purchase intention in the Philippines. Jurnal Studi Komunikasi, 5(3), 551-568. [Google Scholar]
  14. Department of Environment and Natural Resources. (2017). DENR Administrative Order No. 2017-11: Updated National List of Threatened Philippine Plants and their Categories. Retrieved on May 15, 2021, from http://www.bmb.gov.ph/index.php/e-library/laws-and-policies/denr-administrative-orders/dao-2017-2019 [Google Scholar]
  15. Egerer, M., Lin, B., Kingsley, J., Marsh, P., Diekmann, L., & Ossola, A. (2022). Greening Gardening can relieve human stress and boost nature connection during the COVID-19 pandemic. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 68, 127483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2022.127483 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  16. Fernando, E. S., Co, L. C., Lagunzad, D. A., Gruezo, W. S., Barcelona, J. F., Madulid, D. A., Lapis, A. B., Texon, G. I., Manila, A. C., & Zamora, P. M. (2008). Threatened plants of the Philippines: A preliminary assessment. Asia Life Sciences, 3, 1-52. [Google Scholar]
  17. Gale, S. W., Kumar, P., Hinsley, A., Cheuk, M. L., Gao, J., Liu, H., Liu, Z. L., & Williams, S. J. (2019). Quantifying the trade in wild-collected ornamental orchids in South China: Diversity, volume and value gradients underscore the primacy of supply. Biological Conservation, 238, 108204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.108204 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  18. Galhena, D. H., Freed, R., & Maredia, K. M. (2013). Home gardens: A promising approach to enhance household food security and wellbeing. Agriculture and Food Security, 2(8), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/2048-7010-2-8 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  19. Garcia, T. J. (2020). DENR-9 warns public vs. illegal collection of wild plants. Retrieved on May 21, 2021, from https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1114863 [Google Scholar]
  20. Gerdes, M. E., Aistis, L. A., Sachs, N. A., Williams, M., Roberts, J. D., & Goldstein, R. E. R. (2022). Reducing Anxiety with Nature and Gardening (RANG): Evaluating the Impacts of Gardening and Outdoor Activities on Anxiety among U. S. Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(9), 5121. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095121 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  21. Gong, S.-P., Chow, A. T., Fong, J. J., & Shi, H.-T. (2021). The chelonian trade in the largest pet market in China: scale, scope and impact on turtle conservation. Oryx, 43(2), 2132216. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605308000902 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  22. Guuroh, R. T., Uibrig, H., & Acheampong, E. (2012). Homegardens as a source of income for rural households – a case study of Bieha District, Southern Burkina Faso. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B, 2, 798-813. [Google Scholar]
  23. Heywood, V. H. (1999). Use and potential of wild plants in farm households. Food and Agriculture Organizations of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/3/W8801E/W8801E00.htm [Google Scholar]
  24. Jakovljevic, M., Bjedov, S., Jaksic, N., & Jakovljevic, I. (2020). Covid-19 pandemia and public and global mental health from the perspective of global health security. Psychiatria Danubina, 32(1), 6-14. https://doi.org/10.24869/psyd.2020.6 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  25. Legesse, A., Tesfay, G., & Abay, F. (2016). The Impact of urban home gardening on household socio-economy. Arts and Design Studies, 39, 21-30. [Google Scholar]
  26. Madulid, D. (2021). A pictorial cyclopedia of Philippine ornamental plants 3rd edition. The Bookmark Inc. [Google Scholar]
  27. Montefrio, M. J. F. (2020). Interrogating the “productive” home gardener in a time of pandemic lockdown in the Philippines. Food and Foodways, 28(3), 216-225, https://doi.org/10.1080/07409710.2020.1790142 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  28. National Anti-Poverty Commission & International Institute of Rural Reconstruction. (2016). Integrated community food production: A compendium of climate-resilient agriculture options. Retrieved on May 21, 2021, from https://www.napc.gov.ph/sites/default/files/documents/articles/Integrated%20Community%20Food%20Production.pdf [Google Scholar]
  29. Pabalate, N. (2020). Five celebrities who are certified plant lovers. Retrieved on May 21, 2021, from https://mb.com.ph/2020/11/09/five-celebrities-who-are-certified-plant-lovers/ [Google Scholar]
  30. Pérez-Urrestarazu, L., Kaltsidi, M. P., Nektarios, P. A., Markakis, G., Loges, V., Perini, K., & Fernández-Cañero, R. (2021). Particularities of having plants at home during the confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 59, 126919. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2020.126919 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  31. Phelps, J., & Webb, E. L. (2015). “Invisible” wildlife trades: Southeast Asia’s undocumented illegal trade in wild ornamental plants. Biological Conservation, 186, 296–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.03.030 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  32. Roulet, T. J., Gill, M. J., Stenger, S., & Gill, D. J. (2017). Reconsidering the value of covert research: The role of ambiguous consent in participant observation. Organizational Research Methods, 20(3), 487–517. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428117698745 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  33. Schmutz, U., Lennartsson, M., Williams, S., Devereaux, M., & Davies, G. (2014). The benefits of gardening and food growing for health and wellbeing. Garden Organic and Sustain. 45p. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.3703.5289 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  34. Shepherd, C. R., Nijman, V., Krishnasamy, K., Eaton, J. A., & Chng, S. C. L. (2016). Illegal trade pushing the critically endangered black-winged myna Acridotheres melanopterus towards imminent extinction. Bird Conservation International, 26, 147–153. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270915000106 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  35. Siriwat, P., & Nijman, V. (2020). Wildlife trade shifts from brick-and-mortar markets to virtual marketplaces: A case study of birds of prey trade in Thailand. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 13(3), 454–461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2020.03.012 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  36. Siriwat, P., Nekaris, K. A. I., Nijman, V., Wildlife, O., Kingdom, U., & Brookes, O. (2019). The role of the anthropogenic Allee effect in the exotic pet trade on Facebook in Thailand. Journal for Nature Conservation, 51, 125726. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2019.125726 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  37. Sunga, A. B., & Advincula, J. L. (2021). The “plantito/plantita” home gardening during the pandemic. Community Psychology in Global Perspective., 7(1), 88–105. https://doi.org/10.1285/i24212113v7i1p88 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  38. Talukder, A., Haselow, N., Osei, A., Villate, E., Reario, D., Kroeun, H., SokHoing, L., Uddin, A., Dhungel, S., Quinn, V., & Keller, H. (2010). Homestead food production model contributes to improved household food security and nutrition status of young children and women in poor populations - lessons learned from scaling-up programs in Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal and Philippines). Field Actions Science Reports, Special Issue 1, 1-9. [Google Scholar]
  39. Termote, C., Van Damme, P., & Djailo, B. D. a. (2011). Eating from the wild: Turumbu, Mbole and Bali traditional knowledge on non-cultivated edible plants, District Tshopo, DRCongo. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 58(4), 585–618. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-010-9602-4 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  40. Theodorou, A., Panno, A., Carrus, G., Alessio, G., Massullo, C., & Imperatori, C. (2021). Greening Stay home, stay safe, stay green: The role of gardening activities on mental health during the Covid-19 home confinement. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 61, 127091. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2021.127091 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  41. Tian, D., Xiao, Y., Tong, Y., Fu, N., Liu, Q., & Li, C. (2018). Diversity and conservation of Chinese wild begonias. Plant Diversity, 40, 75–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pld.2018.06.002 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  42. Vigo, D., Patten, S., Pajer, K., Krausz, M., Taylor, S., Rush, B., Raviola, G., Saxena, S., Thornicroft, G., & Yatham, L. N. (2020). Mental health of communities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 65(10), 681–687. https://doi.org/10.1177/0706743720926676 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  43. Williams, S. J., Gale, S. W., Hinsley, A., Gao, J., & St. John, F. A. V. (2018). Using consumer preferences to characterize the trade of wild-collected ornamental orchids in China. Conservation Letters, 11(5), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12569 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  44. Wong, S., & Liu, H. (2019). Wild-Orchid trade in a Chinese e-commerce market. Economic Botany, 73(3), 357–374. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s12231-019- 09463-2 [Google Scholar] [Crossref]