Acta Nat. Sci.   |  e-ISSN: 2718-0638

Volume 4 Issue 2 (December 2023)

Issue Information

Issue Full File (2023-Volume 4, Issue 2)

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.354



Review Articles

Using the Totipotency Abilities of Plants in Plant Breeding: Tissue Culture Techniques

İsmail Karakaş

pp. 94 - 113   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.354.1


Some of the biotechnological methods have been successfully applied in cultivated plants after the 1980s and have become practical by being included in the agricultural systems of many countries around the world. Totipotency in plant tissue culture; It can be defined as the ability to produce a completely new plant from a living plant cell. Theoretically, it is possible to grow completely new plants from root, leaf, pollen and petal cells. Plant tissue culture The in vitro aseptic culture of cells, tissues, organs and their components under defined physical and chemical conditions is an important tool in both basic and applied studies and commercial application. The combination of classical and biotechnological methods in plant breeding programs has ample potential to produce plants of superior quality and better disease tolerance and stress tolerance capacities, selection of useful variants in well-adapted high yielding genotypes. As a tool that provides significant opportunities for plant quality improvement and economic sustainability, plant tissue culture has reduced the time and workforce in plant breeding programs.

Keywords: Breeding, Tissue culture, Totipotency, Embryo culture, Protoplast fusion, Haploid technique

Original Articles

Impact of Different Nitrogen Sources and Concentrations on the Growth and Biochemical Structure of Lemna minor  

Hatice Tekoğul, Hülya Eminçe Saygı, Aysun Kop, Yaşar Durmaz & Ayberk Bayrak

pp. 114 - 125   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.354.2


This study aimed to examine the impact of various nitrogen sources and concentrations on the growth and biochemical composition of Lemna minor. Specifically, three nitrogen sources, namely ammonium, nitrate, and urea, were utilized. These nitrogen sources were incorporated into the Hoagland nutrient medium at two different concentrations: 2500 µML^{-1} and 5000 µML^{-1}. The impact of various nitrogen concentrations on the biochemistry of L. minor, including the number of individuals, chlorophyll-a levels, carotene content, dry matter, and protein content was examined. The experimental results revealed that the 7th, 5th, and 6th groups exhibited the highest relative frond number, while no significant statistical difference (p>0.05) was observed between the 5000 µML^{-1} and 2500 µML^{-1} groups among all experimental groups. The 2nd, 7th, and 5th groups displayed the highest relative growth rate. The 4th group using NH_{4}-N as the source exhibited the highest total carotene and chlorophyll-a content. Although there were no significant differences in the dry matter and protein values of L. minor, the protein ratio was higher in the 3rd and 4th groups with NH_{4}-N as the source compared to the other groups. The results indicate that NO_{3} nitrogen is the most suitable nitrogen source for promoting the growth and biochemical composition of L. minor, as evidenced by an increase in relative frond number and relative growth. On the other hand, NH_{4} nitrogen showed favorable effects on protein, carotene, and chlorophyll-a content. Additionally, the experimental groups with a nitrogen concentration of 2500 µML^{-1} yielded better overall results. Interestingly, in terms of protein efficiency, it was observed that nitrogen concentrations played a more significant role than nitrogen sources, and groups with lower dilution rates exhibited superior outcomes.

Keywords: Lemna minor, Nitrogen sources, Concentration, Growth, Protein, Chlorophyll-a, Carotene

Is Popularity Good for Plant Conservation? Impacts of “Plantito and Plantita Culture” in Valencia City, Bukidnon, Philippines  

Felice A. Beligolo & Dave P. Buenavista

pp. 126 - 143   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.354.3


Commercial trading of plants is one of the most unregulated money-making industries in the world, especially in Asia. In the Philippines, many plant species, especially the endemics are already threatened of extinction. One of the threats faced by these species is the commercial trade of ornamental plants. Though prohibited under the wildlife resources conservation and protection laws, the trade persists due to their popularity in social media and local plant collectors. As such, this research aimed to quantitatively assess the illegal trade of ornamental plants in Valencia City, Bukidnon, Philippines. Specifically, it aimed to i) determine the socio-demographic profile of traders, ii) determine the species richness of the ornamental plants illegally traded, iii) determine the quantity of ornamental plant species illegally traded, iv) identify factors that drive the exploitation of the ornamental plants, and v) determine the distribution of the ornamental plants in different areas of Valencia City. The research adopted a covert research approach to monitor the plant trade activities in various street markets of Valencia City, Bukidnon. Observations and interviews have been discretely recorded using mobile phones and audio recorder to collect the data. The survey included both the wild species and cultivated ornamental plants. A total of 140 morphotypes (species, cultivars, hybrids, and varieties) belonging to 60 genera and 33 botanical families were recorded. A total of 1, 473 individual plants were recorded in five barangays of Valencia City. Aroids or arums of the Family Araceae were the most traded and collected ornamental plants with 10 genera and 48 morphotypes. This is followed by Acanthaceae (3 genera; 13 morphotypes), Asparagaceae (3 genera; 12 morphotypes), Commelinaceae (3 genera; 12 morphotypes), Euphorbiaceae (3 genera; 6 morphotypes), Orchidaceae (3 genera; 5 morphotypes) and Polypodiaceae (2 genera; 5 morphotypes).

Keywords: Illegal plant trade, Ornamental plants, Conservation, Mindanao, Philippines

Determination of Stubble Yields and Quality in Wheat and Barley Growing Areas in Çanakkale

Hatice Simay Sarı & Fırat Alatürk

pp. 144 - 157   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.354.4


This study was carried out to determine the yield, composition and forage quality of wheat and barley stubbles collected from the harvested fields of the said crops. The experiment was conducted in Çanakkale during the crop growing seasons of 2021 and 2022. In this study, the yields, compositions (ratios of stalk, leaf, weed and spike), along with the quality of forage (crude protein, crude ash, NDF, ADF, ADL, TSBM, ME, SE and the energy values of NE) of fresh and dry stubbles, taken from wheat and barley fields, were investigated. An average of 297.5 kg/da stubble yields were obtained as the result of this study. Consequently, it has been revealed that the average dry stubble yields of barley fields were 5.7% higher than that of the wheat stubbles. Hence, the average stubble dry matter ratio was recorded as 86.8%. It is concluded that the 44.7%, 44.2%, 5.8% and 5.3% of the stubbles of both plant species formed the stalk, leaf, spike and weed, respectively. The average crude protein, crude ash, NDF, ADF and ADL ratios of the stubbles were noted as 9.9%, 10.9%, 65.5%, 45.7% and 7.7%, respectively. The energy values of barley stubble were found to be higher, while the total digestible nutrient matters were recorded as an average of 55.6%. The overall results of this study showed that the nutrient content of stubble obtained from barley fields has better properties in terms of animal nutrition as compared to the stubbles of wheat.

Keywords: Wheat stubble, Barley stubble, Stubble yield, Stubble composition, Crude protein, Metabolic energy

Analyzing the Seasonality in Yacht Exports of Türkiye

Abdullah Açık & Nergis Özispa

pp. 158 - 171   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.354.5


The volume of the exports of the sectors moves in a certain trend, and companies and policymakers analyze this trend to make their future plans. However, seasonal volume changes in some sectors can be very sharp and their analysis can be as important as trend analysis. One of these sectors is Türkiye’s yacht and watercraft equipment sector. The significance of the seasonal change in exports may indicate that analyzing and understanding the change will increase competitive advantage. In this direction, we decomposed the export data into its components using 258 monthly observations covering the period between January 2002 and June 2023. Afterward, we tested whether the monthly averages of the seasonal factor component obtained from the decomposition were significantly different. The results we obtained with the cluster analysis showed that there are 4 clusters, and the seasonal increase is the highest in the clusters of June, July, and August. On the other hand, the seasonal decrease was determined to be the highest in the January, February, October, and November clusters. It is believed that the results obtained will provide a competitive advantage, especially in terms of the smooth operation of the supply chain and planning of marketing strategies considering the seasonal variation.

Keywords: Yacht industry, Yacht export, Türkiye, TRAMO/SEATS

The Effects of Harvesting Heights at Different Stubble Heights on Forage Yield and Quality in Sorghum Sudangrass Hybrid Cultivars

Nuri Erecek, Ahmet Gökkuş & Fırat Alatürk

pp. 172 - 185   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.354.6


This study was carried out to determine the forage yield and quality of three sorghum sudangrass hybrid cultivars (Greengo, Hay Buster BMR and Cattleman’s Choice) harvested at different stubble heights (5, 10, and 15 cm). The research was conducted in Kalafat village of Çanakkale Province during 2019 and 2020. The experiment was established using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Cultivar and stubble heights were considered as two different factors. Crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and digestible dry matter ratios along with the yields of hay and crude protein determined in this study. The hay yield of sorghum cultivars decreased depending on the increase in remaining stubble heights. The crude protein ratio showed a difference only in terms of cultivars, but crude protein yield differed significantly only according to stubble heights. NDF and ADF ratios along with the digestible dry matter ratios changed significantly only between the years. According to the overall results of this study, the Cattleman’s Choice cultivar and the cutting height of 5 cm could be recommended in sorghum × sudangrass hybrid cultivation for roughage production in summer under ecological conditions similar to Çanakkale province.

Keywords: Sorghum × sudangrass hybrid cultivar, Forage yield, Nutrient value, Digestibility

Investigation of Products Based on Different Writing Speeds using 3D Printer (Extruder)

Bayram Kızılkaya & Hakan Ayyıldız

pp. 186 - 193   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.354.7


In this study, the results of products depending on the printing speed of the 3D printer are discussed. The data was compared to the standard averages (SA) of products produced at different production speeds. The highest standard deviation is observed at a production speed of 100 mm.s^{-1}. In terms of product length (L), the highest deviation is at 40 mm.s^{-1}, while the lowest is at 60 mm.s^{-1}. The product closest to the desired 20 mm length was appeared at a speed of 60 mm.s^{-1}. For product height (H), the highest deviation is at 40 mm.s^{-1}, while the lowest is at 80 mm.s^{-1}. The product closest to the desired 1 mm height is at a speed of 80 mm.s^{-1}. Regarding product weight, the highest deviation is at 40 mm.s^{-1}, and the lowest is at 100 mm.s^{-1}. The results provide further details on the standard averages and standard deviations for each product at each production speed. The deviation percentage (PD) and the H/L ratio were also calculated to understand the magnitude of variation in the products. The H/L ratio was calculated to provide insight into the difference between the highest and lowest measurement results of the produced products. The results show that the highest differences among the products in terms of length, height, and weight are observed at a production speed of 100 mm.s^{-1}. Consequently, it was concluded that a production speed of 100 mm.s^{-1} resulted in the most significant variations in length, height, and weight between the products.


Keywords: 3D Printers, PLA, Writing Speed

Effects of Different Harvesting Practices on Forage Yield and Quality Characteristics in some Sweet Sorghum Cultivars

Elif Nur Sezgin & Fırat Alatürk

pp. 194 - 215   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.354.8


This study was carried out to determine the above-ground and subsoil biomass production and the energy content of leaves and stalks of sweet sorghum cultivars in terms of the different harvesting heights of the crop in the research area of the Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Agriculture in 2020-2021. The experiment was established according to a randomized complete block design using 4 replications, where the main plots represented the sweet sorghum cultivars (M81-E and Topper-76) while the sub-plots consisted of the harvesting heights (30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm, 120 cm, 150 cm and the harvest at physiological maturity stage (PMS)). During the study, the experiment plots having the heights of 30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm, 120 cm, 150 cm and PMS stage were harvested 5 times, 4 times, 3 times, 3 times, 2 times and once, respectively. Yield of fresh hay, leaf and stalk ratios, number of roots, and the values of TSBM, ME and SE of the leaves and stalks were also examined in this study. According to the results obtained, the total yields of fresh forage increased depending on the increase in plant height. In the case of the sweet sorghum (SS) cultivars, the production of fresh forage of the M81-E cultivar was higher than Topper-76. There was an increase in the ratios of stalk, while a decline was observed in the ratios of leaves depending on crop growth. On the other hand, the number of roots produced by the crops increased depending on crop growth. There was a decrease in the energy content of leaves and stalks of the crop depending on the increase in crop height during harvest. Generally, the energy contents of the leaves were found to be higher than the stalks. Consequently, sweet sorghum cultivars are to be grown in the future in terms of grazing and roughage source, and the M81-E cultivar in terms of forage yield came to be the first with a little difference. However, it was found that the Topper-76 cultivar was superior in terms of the energy content of the crop. In conclusion, it is suggested that both SS cultivars can be grown as roughage sources under similar ecological conditions.

Keywords: Sweet sorghum, Hay yield, Root growth, Metabolic energy, Leaf ratio, Net energy

Biochemical Compositions in the Carcasses of Some Small-Sized Indigenous Fin-Fish Species (SIS)

Victoria Folakemi Akinjogunla & Binta Isyaku Usman

pp. 216 - 224   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2023.354.9


A total of 24 samples of 8 small-sized indigenous finfish species (SIS) from Ajiwa Irrigation dam were collected for biometric evaluation. The samples comprised 4 families and were analyzed for proximate compositions (muscle protein, moisture, lipid, ash and gross energy) as well as macro-nutrient compositions using standard procedures. The finfishes sampled ranged in size from 0.90-4.30 cm in length and 1.20-9.53 g in weight. The carcasses of these finfishes contained 17.1±0.15% muscle protein in Sarotherodon galileus and 22.05±0.08% muscle protein in Mormyrus rume. Moisture content ranged from 74.44±1.36% in Schilbe mystus to 78.67±0.2% in Clarias gariepinus while the values for total lipids ranged from 3.26±0.03% in S. galileus to 15.32±0.05% in Clarias anguillaris. The minimum and maximum mean values of ash found in M. rume and C. anguillaris were 2.25±0.02% and 3.71±0.12%, respectively. S. galileus recorded the lowest energy value (4.48±0.06 kcal/g) while S. mystus recorded the highest value (6.21±0.35 kcal/g). The average values of elements present in the flesh of the finfishes were as follows: Calcium (Ca) (41.2 mg/100g and 58.7 mg/100g), Phosphorous (P) (20.0 mg/100g and 27.0 mg/100g), Magnesium (Mg) (12.2 mg/100g and 16.7 mg/100g) and Sodium (Na) (5.1 mg/100g and 5.6 mg/100g). The results showed that Ca was the most abundant macro element present in the fish samples. Additionally, the results indicated that these indigenous finfishes, which are regularly consumed in the routine diets of rural dwellers in the surrounding communities of the Ajiwa irrigation dam have high nutrient values and are ideal for human and domesticated animal consumption despite their small sizes. This study provides current and baseline information on a broad range of species, which will assist nutritionists and the public in making informed decisions regarding the consumption of these species.

Keywords: Ajiwa Irrigation Dam, Calcium, Lipid, Moisture, Proximate composition, SIS, Sodium