Acta Nat. Sci.   |  e-ISSN: 2718-0638

#### Volume 3 Issue 1 (June 2022) Volume 3 Issue 2 Volume 3 Issue 1 Volume 2 Issue 2 Volume 2 Issue 1 Volume 1 Issue 1

 Issue Information Issue Full File (2022-Volume 3, Issue 1) pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.351 Abstract 2022-Volume 3, Issue 1 Issue Full File Cover, Editorial Board, Indexing, Table of Contents   Table of Contents An Important Forage Source for Animals: Small Grain Pastures    Asymmetric Reflection of Shocks in Baltic Dry Index to Istanbul Freight Index  First Observations on the Stomach Contents of Devil Firefish, Pterois miles (Bennett, 1828) in the Gulf of Antalya, Turkey          Age and Growth Parameters of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) From Asi River, Turkey     Determination of Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Different Thyme Species Grown in Çanakkale Conditions      Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships of the Scorpaena Species (Actinopteri: Scorpaenidae) in Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea of Turkey)  Calculation of Residual Stress in Ships by the Method of the Fresnel Approximation       The Effect of Using Wheat Protein as a Protein Source on Some Blood Parameters in Juvenile Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Feeds The Nesting Activity of Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas and Caretta caretta): Results of 2017 Monitoring Study on Kumluca Beach Keywords: Review Articles An Important Forage Source for Animals: Small Grain Pastures Ahmet Gökkuş & Hülya Hanoğlu Oral pp. 1 - 14   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.351.01 Abstract An approximate 40-65% of the qualified roughage needs of farm animals in Turkey can be met according to different calculations. Natural rangelands are important sources in this regard. However, there are serious problems in the management of these areas. Particularly, untimely and heavy grazing is one of the main reasons for the deterioration of vegetative cover. Grain pastures are one of the best options for both reducing the qualified roughage deficit as well as in the solution of certain problems related to grazing in rangelands. Grass yield and quality of cool climate cereals are high, and they reach grazing maturity before natural rangelands in spring, then they can be grazed until later in fall and even could be used as winter rangeland in regions with cool winters. They can also be used for double production (grass + grain). In this respect, the importance and potential of grain pastures in the rangeland-based livestock system have been evaluated in this paper. Keywords: Grain pastures, Grazing, Nutrition value Original Articles Asymmetric Reflection of Shocks in Baltic Dry Index to Istanbul Freight Index Ayhan Salar pp. 15 - 23   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.351.02 Abstract Since the maritime freight markets have inelastic supply structures in the short run, freight is considered an indicator of trade volume. Freight rates can rise rapidly when fleet utilization is high, as supply, which does not increase in the short run due to time of ship building, cannot respond to increases in demand. In this sense, the relationships between the relevant freight indices can be examined in order to determine the regional reflections of global commercial developments. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of the shocks in Baltic Dry Index (BDI), which is an indicator of dry bulk trade in the global sense and considered as a leading indicator of the world economy by many researchers, on Istanbul Freight Index (ISTFIX), which is an indicator of trade in the Mediterranean and Aegean in the regional sense. The dataset covers the period between 31.12.2007 and 19.02.2018, and consists of 524 weekly observations. Asymmetric causality test is used in order to reveal relationship between variables. According to the findings, a significant causality relationship was determined only from negative shocks in BDI to negative shocks in ISTFIX. This situation shows that the contraction in global trade is immediately reflected in the ISTFIX region, while the expansion in trade is not immediately reflected. Keywords: Asymmetric Causality, Shocks, Baltic Dry Index, Istanbul Freight Index First Observations on the Stomach Contents of Devil Firefish, Pterois miles (Bennett, 1828) in the Gulf of Antalya, Turkey Raziye Tanrıverdi, Mehmet Gökoğlu & Jale Korun pp. 24 - 31   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.351.03 Abstract The present study examined stomach contents of 35 individuals of Pterois miles (Bennett, 1828) captured using scuba diving gears in Antalya Gulf. Total length and total weight in the specimens of P. miles collected from the Gulf of Antalya were 13.1-35.2 cm (mean±SD; 19.98±4.40) and 36.88-456.6 g (mean±SD; 103.82±91.29), respectively. The dominant prey were fish (IFO=106.67%, IP=59.38%) and the rest were crustaceans (IFO=53.33%, IP=40.63%). It was determined that P. miles was carnivorous and predominantly piscivorous. This study is the first to show how kind of consumption preys P. miles obtained from the Gulf of Antalya. The result of this study strengthens the existing knowledge on the consumption preys of devil firefish in the eastern Mediterranean. The distribution of this species continues in the Turkish Seas. The fishery and consumption of lionfish should be improved. The development of a lionfish fishery could provide a management tool to ameliorate impacts to coastal ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea. Keywords: Devil firefish, Stomach content, Prey, Diet, Antalya Age and Growth Parameters of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) From Asi River, Turkey Emrah Şimşek, Zeynel Abi̇di̇n Gözler & Osman Samsun pp. 32 - 42   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.351.04 Abstract This study aimed to determine the age and growth parameters of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) from the Asi River. A total of 185 fish samples have been collected from the Asi River, located in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey, from December 2018 to March 2019. Samplings were carried out with fyke-nets. Lengths and weights of samples ranged from 20.47 to 62.46 cm and 74.4 to 1874.2 g, respectively. The sex ratio (1:1.06) was biased toward males (p>0.05). In terms of length-weight relationship, b-values were calculated as 2.98, 2.83, and 2.94 for female, male, and whole samples, respectively. Isometric growth was determined. The Fulton condition factor (CF) value for all samples was calculated as 0.7591±0.009. The ages of fish samples ranged from I to IV, and the dominant age and total length (TL) groups of the population were the I and II age groups. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated as $L_{\infty}$=58.5 cm, K=0.41 $year^{-1}$, $t_{0}$=-0.7, Φ’=3.15 for females; $L_{\infty}$=68.3 cm, K=0.35 $year^{-1}$, $t_{0}$=-0.6, Φ’=3.21 for males and $L_{\infty}$=58.2 cm, K=0.39 $year^{-1}$, $t_{0}$=-0.4, Φ’=3.12 for whole collected samples. As a result, climate change and its effects, especially the construction of dams in certain parts of the river for agricultural irrigation purposes and the resulting lack of management negatively affect the natural living stocks of the Asi River. Therefore, it can be said that the C. gariepinus stocks in these areas are overexploited. Legal arrangements should be made in this region to correct these conditions.$_{\tfrac{_{_{}}}{}}$ Keywords: Asi River Basin, Biological Parameters, Fyke-net, Overexploitation Determination of Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Different Thyme Species Grown in Çanakkale Conditions Seniiha Ruken Pirinççioğlu & Bahri İzci pp. 44 - 50   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.351.05 Abstract Turkey is one of the leading countries in the trade of medicinal and aromatic plants due to its geography, and while exporting many medicinal plants, it also imports many plants. Thyme is often used as a spice in meat, fish and many other dishes due to its aromatic properties. It is a scientific fact that the essential oils in thyme have a strong antimicrobial effect. Thymol, which gives the distinctive smell of thyme, is an advanced antimicrobial agent. For this reason, it is recommended by many scientists to use thyme in the preservation of ready-made foods and disinfection of foods. It is an important plant for the country's economy, as it is an important medicinal aromatic plant and meets a large part of the thyme used in the world. Thyme, which is obtained by collecting from nature and cultivating in our country, has been an important research topic for scientists and many positive results have been obtained and continue to be achieved. This research was carried out at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Agriculture in 2021 in order to reveal the effect of essential oils obtained from 3 different thyme grown in Çanakkale conditions on 4 different bacteria. As research material, essential oils of Izmir thyme (Origanum onites), Istanbul thyme (Origanum vulgare) and medical thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were obtained by hydro-distillation method, and the anti-bacterial activities of these essential oils were determined against the determined bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter cloacaurmicium, Salmonella typhimurium. The antimicrobial activities of essential oils were determined by the disc diffusion method. As a result, according to the data obtained from all thyme essential oils, while all of them showed an antimicrobial effect on bacteria, the most antimicrobial activity was seen in O. onites and O. vulgare essential oils, while the least antimicrobial activity was seen in T. vulgaris essential oil. It showed the best activity in Origanum vulgare, especially on S. aureus (42 mm) and S. typhimurium (39 mm) bacteria. In the study, T. vulgaris had low activity against P. aeruginosa with an inhibition diameter of 19 mm. Keywords: Thyme, Thymus, Origanum, Essential oil, Antimicrobial, Bacteria Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships of the Scorpaena Species (Actinopteri: Scorpaenidae) in Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea of Turkey) Bahar Bayhan, Burcu Taylan & Oğulcan Heral pp. 51 - 58   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.351.06 Abstract In this study, 173 specimens of Scorpaena porcus (n=50), Scorpaena elongata (n=20), Scorpaena scrofa (n=101), Scorpaena notata (n=2) were obtained from commercial fishermen in the Aegean Sea between 2017 and 2019. The length-weight relationships were determined for S. porcus, S. scrofa and S. elongata as W=0.0119TL3.182, W=0.0176TL3.004 and W=0.0656TL2.579, respectively. Negative allometry was found for S. scrofa and S. elongate, whereas positive allometry was present for S. porcus. However, with less than 5 individuals S. notata showed maximum, minimum, and mean total length and weight values. S. notata (2 individuals) had a mean total length and weight of 15.7-16.6 cm and 72.31-93.26 g. The results also demonstrated that the length-length relationships were strongly correlated for all Scorpaena species (r²>0.980, P<0.05). Keywords: Scorpaena Length-length relationship, Length-weight relationship, Aegean Sea, Izmir Bay Calculation of Residual Stress in Ships by the Method of the Fresnel Approximation Semi̇h Öztürk & Mustafa Kurt pp. 59 - 69   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.351.07 Abstract Predictive maintenance techniques are developed to help determine the condition of in-service equipment in order to predict when maintenance should be performed. There is a need for cost-performance effective approaches and methods for predictive maintenance that can make non-destructive on-site measurements to predict residual stress-induced critical faults in large metal structures, such as ships. In this study, an optical method based on the calculation of the non-destructive surface magnetic permeability coefficient is proposed for monitoring the residual stress distribution in AISI4040 and DUPLEX materials. In our proposed new method for determining theoretically the residual stress at the joint site of large plates in ships, the Lorentz-Drude model and the Fresnel approximation were used. Our results show that the new optical technique proposed in this study is sufficient and thriving for the determination of residual stresses in large metal structures. Keywords: AISI4140, DUPLEX, Residual Stress, Fresnel Approach, Brewster Angle The Effect of Using Wheat Protein as a Protein Source on Some Blood Parameters in Juvenile Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Feeds Seçkin Akın & Musa Bulut pp. 70 - 76   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.351.08 Abstract In this study, wheat protein was substituted for fish meal at different rates (25%, 50%, 75%, 100%) in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fish feed and the effects on some blood parameters were investigated. The initial weight of 450 sea bass fish used in the study was calculated as 2.33 ± 0.2 g. Sea bass fry, 30 in each aquarium, were fed with experimental feeds for 60 days in triplicates. At the end of the experiment, hematological and biochemical blood parameters were analyzed. As a result, it was found that the use of wheat protein at a high rate had statistically significant effects on blood parameters. Keywords: Sea bass wheat protein, Blood parameters The Nesting Activity of Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas and Caretta caretta): Results of 2017 Monitoring Study on Kumluca Beach Mehmet Maden, Hakan Ayyıldız, Aytaç Altın & Cenk Alver pp. 77 - 84   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.351.09 Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the sea turtles (Caretta caretta and Chelonia mydas) monitoring results of Kumluca beach in 2017 and to compare these results with those of previous years. In addition, it identified problems faced by loggerhead turtles on Kumluca beach and propose solutions. The study area covers 14 km of Kumluca nesting beach. Field studies were carried out daily between June and September 2017. A total of 1306 tracks for C. caretta was recorded, and 715 of them resulted in the nest on Kumluca beach. However, only a single nest of C. mydas was recorded in the 2017 nesting season. Also, it was found that nesting success is 54.74 and nest density is 51.07 nests/km for C. caretta. The mean distance from the sea of the nests is 21.75±7.71 m (range=6-66 m). The most density occurred between 15 and 30 m from the sea. Mean hatch success for all nests was 65.4% while no hatching activities were observed in 248 (34.6%) nests. A total of 36 C. caretta was tagged. The mean curved carapace length (CCL) and curved carapace width (CCW) were 74.7±3.9 cm (range=64-84) and 67.4±3.5 cm (range=61-77), respectively. The mean head length (HL) and head circumference (HC) were 26.6±2.6 cm (range=20-30) and 49.1±3.8 cm (range=42-61), respectively. Also, a total of 116 nests were lost due to storms and anthropological effects. The problems frequently encountered in the Kumluca spawning area mainly, vehicle use, sand removal, artificial light sources, animal entry and solid wastes on the beach. In addition, solution suggestions for these problems are presented. Keywords: Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, Kumluca, Population, Nesting

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