Acta Nat. Sci.   |  e-ISSN: 2718-0638

Volume 3 Issue 2 (December 2022)

Issue Information

Issue Full File (2022-Volume 3, Issue 2)

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.352


2022-Volume 3, Issue 2

Issue Full File

Cover, Editorial Board, Indexing, Table of Contents


Table of Contents

  1. Example of Coastline Changes from the Last Glacier Maximum to the Present: Çanakkale Strait
  2. Characterization of Genetic Diversity Among Cucumis Accessions Based on Morphological and Phytochemical Characters
  3. Effects of Different Harvesting Times on Yield and Quality of Oat and Triticale
  4. An Overview of Destructive Fishing in the Philippines
  5. Some Population Parameters of Cyprinus carpio (L., 1758) From Yeşilırmak (Samsun, Türkiye)
  6. Larval Development of Siamese Fighting Fish (Betta splendens Regan, 1910)
  7. Modeling the Inflation of Türkiye Considering the Impact of Maritime Transport Costs
  8. Impact of Stocking Density on the Survival, Growth and Injury of Narrow Narrow-Clawed Crayfish (Pontastacus leptodactylus) Reared in a Flowing Brackish Water System
  9. The Quality and Germination Rate of Seeds Obtained From Garden Cress Grown Under Water Stress
  10. Relationship Between the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Nutritional Status of Adult
  11. Larval Development of Rusty Cichlid Fish (Iodotropheus sprengerae Oliver & Loiselle, 1972): Morphological Observations
  12. Characterization of Fisheries Violations From the Türkiye’s Mediterranean Coasts Within the Scope of Fisheries Law No. 1380


Original Articles

Example of Coastline Changes from the Last Glacier Maximum to the Present: Çanakkale Strait

Merve Bebek & Mustafa Avcıoğlu

pp. 85 - 92   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.352.01


Climate change emerges as an important problem for the earth today. Although the negative effects of this problem are not directly reflected in the time we live in, it is revealed by the scientists working on the subject that it will be observed in human life for decades-centuries and will be observed in detail on the earth for thousands of tens of thousands of years later. This predicted climate change can be considered a normal situation when considering the time that has passed from the formation of the earth to the present, approximately 4.5 billion years (except that the difference between the reasons for climate changes in the past geological times and the predicted climate change is the human effect). The effects of Quaternary climate change can be observed on the earth both on a global scale and on a regional scale. As an example of global climate change, the continuous change of sea level can be given, and the best indicators of this change are geological/geomorphological structures such as marine terraces or submarine canyons observed on the coasts on the regional scale. On the local scale, stalactites and stalagmites observed in caves, lake sediments, deep sea sediments, glacial cores are among the best examples of climate change. In this study, the land-sea boundary (coastal line) changes of the coasts of the Çanakkale Strait, which is the southern branch of the Turkish Straits System, have been investigated, considering the sea level changes that show the climate change best in the last 25 thousand years. In this context, the coastal changes of the Çanakkale Strait coasts from the Late Pleistocene to the present are modeled using geographic information systems programs, by using different global and regional sea level change charts showing climate changes. The most striking of these new maps is the one from 20 thousand years ago. At this time, it is known that the global sea level is 120 meters lower than today and the deepest point of the Çanakkale Strait is around -113 meters today. Therefore, it is not possible to mention a Mediterranean-Black Sea waterway connection through the Çanakkale Strait at these times.

Keywords: Paleoclimate, Çanakkale Strait, Sea level changes, Coastline

Characterization of Genetic Diversity Among Cucumis Accessions Based on Morphological and Phytochemical Characters

Elyas Aryaki̇a & Mohamad Reza Naghavi̇

pp. 93 - 107   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.352.02


The genus Cucumis L. of the Cucurbitaceae family is widely cultivated all over the world. Despite wide distribution and consumption, there is little information for the assessment of genetic diversity among Iranian Cucumis species. In this study, genetic diversity among 21 accessions of Iranian Cucumis species (C. sativus and C. melo) was assessed using 20 morphological characters of fruit and leaf and 4 phytochemical characters. High phytochemical and morphological diversity at intra- and interspecific levels were revealed among Cucumis species, which reflects the industrial potential of Iranian accessions for breeding and commercial usage. The grouping pattern of genetic diversity was constructed using the UPGMA dendrogram. The results of the grouping pattern revealed high efficiency of morphological and phytochemical characteristics for uncovering the genetic diversity of Cucumis accessions. Moreover, using morphological characters, cucumbers were separated according to their ecological zones. Considerable amounts of phytochemical properties were revealed among Iranian Cucumis accessions, which were comparable to those reported in other studies. Furthermore, unlike Total phenol content and total flavonoid content, melons showed more total sugar and DPPH radical scavenging activity than cucumbers. These results could be important for Cucumis gene bank management, agriculture, and breeding programs.

Keywords: Cucumis, Genetic diversity, Morphology, DPPH

Effects of Different Harvesting Times on Yield and Quality of Oat and Triticale

Keziban Kılınç & Ahmet Gökkuş

pp. 108 - 115   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.352.03


This research was carried out to investigate the yield and quality of the hay of oat and triticale harvested at different timings in the growing seasons of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 at the Research and Application Field of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Agriculture situated in Dardanos Çanakkale. Plants were harvested in three different growth stages (earing/heading formation, flowering and milk dough stages) in this study. The experiment has been established by using a randomized complete block design with 6 replications. Crude protein (CP), crude ash (CA) and digestible dry matter (DDM) along with the fresh and dry yield of hay were determined in this study. The fresh and dry yield of hay increased when the harvesting time was delayed. In the results of two years harvesting stage of earing/heading, the average hay yield increased from 494.5 kg/da to 2049.8 kg/da at milk dough stage. On the other hand, the ratios of CP, CA and DDM were decreased. In general, the values of oat and triticale were found to be close to each other. Consequently, it has been concluded that it would be appropriate to harvest both oat and triticale during their milk dough stage, although, there is a slight decrease in hay quality since the hay yield is very high. Harvesting should be done during the flowering stage, if the high quality hay production is expected.

Keywords: Oat, Tritikale, Harvesting time, Yield, Quality, Nutrient content

Review Articles

An Overview of Destructive Fishing in the Philippines

Albaris Tahiluddin & Jurmi̇n Sarri̇

pp. 116 - 125   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.352.04


The Philippines, being positioned in the center of the coral triangle, is among the major-fish producing countries globally. However, in many parts of the country, illegal fishing is rampant, particularly destructive fishing practices (DFPs). Fisheries involving DFPs cause direct ecological damage to the corals. These fishing activities threaten both natural habitats and aquatic resources. In this review paper, we reviewed available scientific literature reporting the DFPs in the Philippines from 1979 to 2022. Results revealed that most DFPs, such as dynamite fishing, cyanide fishing, and muro-ami fishing, were prevalent and remained a lingering problem in the Philippines from the 1930s up to this date. The weak enforcement of the existing laws and regulations fuels these activities, compromising the productive coral reef areas in the Philippines. Thus, it is urgently necessary to cease these DFPs as well as protect the integrity of vital and fragile ecosystems. It is therefore recommended that strict implementation of the laws and regulations at local and national levels is likely to stop or if not least, reduce the pressing issues of destructive fishing techniques. 

Keywords: Cyanide fishing, Destructive fishing, Dynamite fishing, Muro-ami fishing, Philippines

Original Articles

Some Population Parameters of Cyprinus carpio (L., 1758) From Yeşilırmak (Samsun, Türkiye)

Özgen Yılmaz & Hasan Cerim

pp. 126 - 136   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.352.05


Current study was carried out between March 2019 and February 2020 to determine the biological characteristics of Cyprinus carpio, which is brought to fish markets of Alaca (Çorum) from Hasan Uğurlu Dam Reservoir (Samsun). Total, fork, standard lengths, and weights of 406 individuals were measured and recorded. Sex ratio was calculated as 1:2.1 (♀:♂). Ages were determined by using lateral scales and thus age groups were formed. According to the data collected, equation of length-weight relationship was \small W = 0.0163 TL^{2.935} and an isometric growth pattern was observed for combined individuals. VI age group has the most individuals (n=148). Fulton’s condition factor (K) and phi-prime growth index (Φ’) were calculated as 1.3 and 2.42, respectively. This study makes a contribution to common carp stock related studies for further common carp fishery management.

Keywords: Cyprinus carpio, Freshwater fish, Yeşilırmak, Alaca, Length-weight relationship, Fulton’s condition factor

Larval Development of Siamese Fighting Fish (Betta splendens Regan, 1910)

Ihsan Çelik, Pınar Çelik & Sencer Akalın

pp. 137 - 147   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.352.06


In this study, the larval development stages of one of the most important ornamental fish Siamese fighting fish betta (Betta splendens Regan, 1910) were examined. The larval development stage was documented from hatching until the beginning of the juvenile period. The fertilized eggs were incubated at a water temperature of 28±0.5°C. The embryonic developmental stage was completed and hatching was observed at 28-32 hours post fertilization (hpf). The mouth and anus were closed 1 day after hatching (DAH). The mouth and anus were opened at 2 DAH. Exogenous feeding started on 3 DAH. The swim bladder was inflated at 2–3 DAH. The yolk sac was completely consumed at 4 DAH and the larvae began to swim freely. The larval development of Betta splendens was divided into four different periods: Yolk-sac larva (1–4 DAH), preflexion larva (4–8 DAH), flexion larva (11-12 DAH) and post-flexion larva (13–30 DAH). The larval metamorphosis was completed, and the larvae transformed into juveniles at 30 DAH.

Keywords: Fighting fish beta, Betta splendens, Ornamental fish, Larvae, Aquaculture

Modeling the Inflation of Türkiye Considering the Impact of Maritime Transport Costs

Abdullah Açık & Muhammet Rıdvan Ince

pp. 148 - 162   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.352.07


We modeled Turkish inflation using causality analysis by considering the impact of maritime transport costs. We also supported the results with impulse and response, and variance decomposition analyses. The results show that the exchange rate, commodity price, dry bulk freight rate and container freight rate have significant effects on inflation, and their shocks cannot be eliminated from the system for a long time. The most important factor affecting inflation is its historical value and the effect of exchange rates is also quite high. The container freight rate has a greater impact on inflation than the dry bulk freight rate. The forecast made using the vector autoregressive (VAR) model showed that inflation will continue to increase, but the rate of increase will slow down. It is important to implement appropriate policies to break the effect of expectations on inflation due to the new economic policies. Additionally, it is important to develop stabilizing tools to protect freight rates from the permanent effects of unexpected shocks.

Keywords: Granger causality, Inflation, Exchange rate, Container freight rate, Dry bulk freight rate

Impact of Stocking Density on the Survival, Growth and Injury of Narrow-Clawed Crayfish (Pontastacus leptodactylus) Reared in a Flowing Brackish Water System 

Yavuz Mazlum & Cumhur Uzun

pp. 163 - 183   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.352.08


The crayfish population dramatically declined in most lakes and dams in Türkiye; hence, crayfish culture is a possible option to increase the supply. This study aimed to determine the effects of stocking density on the growth performance and survival of newly-hatched third instars of narrow-clawed crayfish (Pontastacus leptodactylus) in a flowing brackish water system. The third instars were randomly stocked in nine tanks (area: 1.7 m^{2}) for 120 days with three densities of 10, 50, and 100 crayfish/m^{2}. The results indicated that the stocking density significantly affected the growth performance, survival rate, proportion of the cheliped injury, biomass, length distribution, and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The mean final weights and total lengths were 2.27, 1.40, and 1.08 g and 4.83, 3.73 and 3.51 cm according to the densities, respectively. The highest stocking density increased the total biomass yield and proportion of the cheliped injury but reduced the survival, growth, molting frequency and regeneration of the appendage. The survival (86.3%) and specific growth rate (1.16 cm/day) in the 10 individuals/m^{2} group were significantly higher than the other groups. The cheliped injury was also found to be the lowest in the 10 individual/m^{2} group (p<0.05). Our study results showed that significant differences in FCR value were observed at different stocking densities. In summary, higher stocking density at the end of this study increased the frequency and severity of aggressive interactions of crayfish, limiting molting frequency and growth performance. A density of 10-50 crayfish/m^{2} is recommended for better growth parameters while 100 crayfish/m^{2} is suggested for higher biomass yield.

Keywords: Freshwater crayfish, Pontastacus leptodactylus, Stocking density, Growth, Brackish water, Cheliped injury, Molting

The Quality and Germination Rate of Seeds Obtained From Garden Cress Grown Under Water Stress

Okan Erken

pp. 184 - 188   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.352.09


The objective of this study is to determine the sustainability of seeds obtained from plants subjected to water stress. For this reason, seed quality and germination rates were determined in the seeds obtained from the garden cress plant (Lepidium sativum L.) grown under water stress in both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. In the study, apart from the seeds obtained from the 100% irrigated control plants, seeds from the garden cress irrigated with 50% and 25% water were used. The 1000-grain weight of the garden cress seeds, an indicator of seed quality, varied between 1.975-2.227 g in greenhouse conditions and between 2.121-2.248 g in laboratory conditions, where the changes in both conditions were statistically significant. The germination rates of the garden cress seeds grown under different water stress levels were found to be between 97-99% in greenhouse conditions. It was determined that in laboratory conditions all test subjects had a 100% germination rate. As a result, it was concluded that the seeds obtained from the garden cress plant, which was exposed to water stress during their growing period, continued their vitality despite water stress.

Keywords: Lepidium sativum L., Water stress, Seed quality, Germination

Relationship Between the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Nutritional Status of Adult

Sümeyye Güzel & Alev Keser

pp. 189 - 202   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.352.10


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have the highest prevalence among non-communicable diseases so prevention from CVD is very important. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of cardiovascular events in adults over the next 10 years with the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and to evaluate the relationship between this risk and the nutritional patterns of individuals. This study was conducted with a total of 238 individuals (78 males, 160 females) aged between 30-64 years. Energy, micro and macronutrients intake levels of the participants according to FRS and gender were determined by taking a daily food consumption record with a 24-hour retrospective reminder method. Participants’ ten-year coronary disease risk was assessed with FRS which was classified as low risk (<10%), moderate risk (10-20%), and high risk (>20%). While 44.9% of the men had moderate/high coronary disease risk, all of women had low risk. Energy, many macronutrients and micronutrients intake levels of men with low risk of coronary heart diseases (CHD) were higher than women. FRS values of all individuals participating in the research were related to energy, carbohydrate (g, %), protein (g), total fat (%), mono-unsaturated fatty acid/MUFA (g), poly-unsaturated fatty acid/PUFA (%), riboflavin, sodium, and zinc. Of these parameters, total fat and PUFA were negatively correlated, while the others were positively correlated. The parameter that most affected the FRS value was carbohydrate (g). These results clearly demonstrate the relationship between nutrition and CVD risk. Therefore, identifying individuals with medium/high FRS and taking nutritional initiatives are important in reducing the CVD prevalence and health costs.

Keywords: Coronary heart diseases, Framingham Risk Score, Macronutrients, Micronutrients, Nutrition

Larval Development of Rusty Cichlid Fish (Iodotropheus sprengerae Oliver & Loiselle, 1972): Morphological Observations

Ihsan Çelik, Pınar Çelik & Bahadır Rıfat Yalçın

pp. 203 - 213   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.352.11


This study aimed to describe the larval development stage of rusty cichlid, Iodotropheus sprengerae morphologically. The rusty cichlid is a mouth-brooding haplochromine cichlid from Lake Malawi. It is one of the most popular cichlids in the ornamental fish industry. We investigated its morphological development of I. sprengerae from hatching until the juvenile stage in the present study. The eggs were incubated at a water temperature of 29±0.5°C. Embryonic development was completed at 4 days post fertilization (=dpf). The eggs hatched at 5 dpf. In newly hatched larvae, most organs and body parts were not yet differentiated and continued to develop. The mouth and anus were closed at 1 days after hatching (=DAH). The mouth and anus were opened at 3 DAH. The yolk sac was fully absorbed at 10-11 DAH. The larvae begin to swim freely at 10-12 DAH. According to morphological findings, the larval metamorphosis of rusty cichlid I. sprengerae was completed, and the larvae transformed into juveniles at 13-15 DAH. These results indicate how early morphological development of larvae of mouth-brooding cichlids.

Keywords: Cichlidae, Malawi Gölü, Iodotropheus sprengerae, Paslı ciklit, Larval gelişim

Characterization of Fisheries Violations From the Türkiye’s Mediterranean Coasts Within the Scope of Fisheries Law No. 1380

Huseyın Barıs Kaya & Mehmet Fatih Can

pp. 214 - 225   |  DOI: 10.29329/actanatsci.2022.352.12


In this study, fisheries violations within the scope of the Turkish Fisheries Law No. 1380 were characterized for the Mediterranean Coasts of Türkiye. For this purpose, by taking into account the frequency and amount of the fines, the patterns of violations in terms of fishing gear, region, season, region-season and fishing gear-season by regions interactions were determined. Data were derived from the Turkish Coast Guard Command’ fisheries surveillance activities during 2014 for areas between coordinates of (36°00’00” N-29°00’00” E) and (36°00’00” N-35°45’00” E). A total of 491 violations against the Fisheries Law No. 1380 were considered. It was determined that the most violations were made by angling (23.22%) and the least by drift nets (0.4%). According to penalties amounts for the 2014, a total of $298,817 administrative fines were imposed. Trawl violations accounted for the highest total administrative fines (48.38%), while the lowest total administrative fines (0.17%) were for violations with drift nets. While the most violations were detected in Antalya region, the highest administrative fine was applied in Adana-Mersin region. According to seasons, there was a decrease in fisheries violations due to closed season measurement for fishing during summer. In terms of administrative fines, the season-region interaction was experienced the most in Adana-Mersin region during winter, and the least in Hatay-Adana region during summer. In season-region interaction, the most violations were observed in Antalya region in spring, while the least in summer in Hatay-Adana region. In interaction related to fishing gear-season by regions, it was determined that the highest number of violations and administrative fines occurred in winter during angling in Adana-Mersin region and in autumn during purse seine fishing in Hatay-Adana region. As a result, in short term, these findings could assist decision-making mechanisms for the effectiveness and efficiency of MCS (Monitoring, Control and Surveillance) system, which is an important part of fisheries management regime. In long term, these findings could also be used in a regional Decision Support System for fishery management with integrating with other elements of fisheries management regime.

Keywords: Mediterranean Sea, Fisheries law, Illegal fishing, Fisheries violations, Surveillance