Acta Nat. Sci.   |  e-ISSN: 2718-0638

Original article | Acta Natura et Scientia 2021, Vol. 2(2) 166-176

Effects of Annual Grass with the Mixtures of Legume on Agronomic Growth of Plants

Fırat Alatürk, Ahmet Gökkuş & Baboo Ali

pp. 166 - 176   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.11   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2105-13-0002.R1

Published online: December 03, 2021  |   Number of Views: 20  |  Number of Download: 218


Abstract

This study has been carried out in order to determine the variations in the vegetative characteristics of the mixtures of legume and cereal crops. Experiments were conducted according to the randomized complete block design using three replications of flowerpots. In the experiment; 1, 2 and 4 annual grass, Hungarian vetch and hairy vetch along with their double mixtures have been taken from per flowerpot. Effects of lean and mixed cultivation on plant characteristics (plant height, number of branches, total wet and dry weight and total root weight) and nutritional characteristics (NDF, ADF, ADL, crude protein, crude ash, digestibility of dry and organic matter, and total fiber) of crops were examined in this study. According to the results of our research work, as the number of plants per flowerpot increased the total wet and dry weight and root mass increased, too, in terms of plant characteristics particularly, in mixed sowing, the amount of upper soil surface and underground organic mass increased. Ratios of NDF, ADF and fiber in the mixture of cereals with legumes have decreased, while the digestibility of crude protein, crude ash, dry and organic matter has increased in case of nutritional characteristics. On the other hand, the ratios of NDF and ADF have increased, while there was a decrease in crude protein and crude ash ratios in the mixture of legumes with cereals. This indicates that annual grass along with hairy vetch and Hungarian vetch can be cultivated in winter both for obtaining higher grass production as well as to provide more organic matter to soil. It is concluded that the most suitable mixing ratios to be the two-fold and four-fold ratios of perennial grass along with the single ratio of vetches.

Keywords: Nutritional characteristics, Botanical characteristics, Crude protein, ADF, Cereal


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Alaturk, F., Gokkus, A. & Ali, B. (2021). Effects of Annual Grass with the Mixtures of Legume on Agronomic Growth of Plants . Acta Natura et Scientia, 2(2), 166-176. doi: 10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.11

Harvard
Alaturk, F., Gokkus, A. and Ali, B. (2021). Effects of Annual Grass with the Mixtures of Legume on Agronomic Growth of Plants . Acta Natura et Scientia, 2(2), pp. 166-176.

Chicago 16th edition
Alaturk, Firat, Ahmet Gokkus and Baboo Ali (2021). "Effects of Annual Grass with the Mixtures of Legume on Agronomic Growth of Plants ". Acta Natura et Scientia 2 (2):166-176. doi:10.29329/actanatsci.2021.350.11.

References
  1. Akin, D. E., Wilson, J. R., & Windham, W. R. (1983). Site and rate of tissue digestion in leaves of C3, C4 and C3/C4 intermediate Panicum species. Crop Science, 23(1), 147-155. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1983.0011183X002300010042x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  2. Altın, M. (1987). Sulu koşullarda bazı yem bitkileri ile bunların karışımlarının değişik azot seviyelerindeki kuru ot verimleri. Doğa, Tarım ve Ormancılık Dergisi, 11, 249-261. [Google Scholar]
  3. Altın, M., & Gökkuş, A. (1988). Erzurum sulu koşullarda bazı yem bitkileri ile bunların karışımlarının değişik ekim şekillerindeki kuru ot verimleri üzerinde bir araştırma. Doğa, Tarım ve Ormancılık Dergisi, 12(1), 24-36. [Google Scholar]
  4. Altınok, S., & Hakyemez, H. B. (2002). Ankara koşullarında tüylü fiğ ve koca fiğin arpa ile karışımlarında farklı karışım oranlarının yem verimlerine etkileri. Ankara Üniversitesi Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi, 8, 5-50. [Google Scholar]
  5. Anil, L., Park, J., Phipps R. H., & Miller, F. A. (1998). Temperate intercropping of cereals for forage: a review of the potential for growth and utilization with particular reference to the UK. Grass and Forage Science, 53(4), 301-317. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2494.1998.00144.x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  6. AOAC. (1990). Official method of analysis. Association of official analytical 12 chemists. 15th Edition. Washington, DC., USA. 66-88 pp. [Google Scholar]
  7. Avcıoğlu, S. (1979). Çeşitli fiğ+arpa ve fiğ+yulaf hasıllarının verim ve diğer bazı özellikleri üzerinde araştırmalar. [Doktora Tezi. Ege Bölge Zirai Araştırma Enstitüsü]. [Google Scholar]
  8. Avcıoğlu, Ş., & Avcıoğlu, R. (1982). Değişik karışım oranları ile biçim zamanlarının adi fiğ+yulaf hasıllarının verim ve diğer bazı özellikleri üzerinde araştırmalar. Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 19(2), 123-136. [Google Scholar]
  9. Ayan, İ., Acar, Z., Başaran, U., Aşçı, Ö. Ö., & Mut, H. (2006). Samsun ekolojik koşullarında bazı burçak (Vicia ervilia L.) hatlarının ot ve tohum verimlerinin belirlenmesi. Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 21(3), 318-322. [Google Scholar]
  10. Aydın, İ., & Tosun, F. (1991). Samsun ekolojik şartlarında yetiştirilen adi fiğ + bazı tahıl türlerinde farklı karışım oranlarının kuru ot verimine etkileri üzerinde bir araştırma. Türkiye 2. Çayır-Mera ve Yem bitkileri Kongresi Bildiriler Kitabı, Türkiye. pp. 332-340. [Google Scholar]
  11. Berg, W. A. (1990). Herbage production and nitrogen accumulation by alfalfa and cicer milkvetch in the southern plains. Agronomy Journal, 82(2), 224-229. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1990.00021962008200020011x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  12. Büyükburç, U., & Karadağ, Y. (2002). The amount of NO3-N transferred to soil by legumes, forage and seed yield, and the forage quality of annual legume + triticale mixtures. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 26(5), 281-288. [Google Scholar]
  13. Caballero, R., Goicoechea, E. L., & Hernaiz, P. J. (1995). Forage yields and quality of common vetch and oat sown at varying seeding ratios and seeding rates of vetch. Field Crops Research, 41(2), 135-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4290(94)00114-R [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  14. Cook, C. W., & Stubbendieck, J. (1986). Range research: Basic problems and techniques. Society for Range Management. [Google Scholar]
  15. Dougherty, C. T., Scott, W. R., & Langer, R. H. M. (1974). Effects of sowing rate, irrigation, and nitrogen on the components of yield of spring-sown semi dwarf and standard New Zealand wheats. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 18(3), 197-207. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288233.1975.10423634 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  16. Dubey, S. K., & Lal, J. P. (1970). Yield behavior of dwarf versus tall wheat varieties under rates of nitrogen, seed rate and spacing. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 15, 136-140. [Google Scholar]
  17. Hanna, W. W., Monson, W. G., & Burton, G. W. (1973). Histological examination of fresh forage leaves after in vitro digestion. Crop Science, 13(1), 98-102. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1973.0011183X001300010031x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  18. Hiebsch, C. K., & McCollum, R. E. (1987). Area-x-time equivalency ratio: A method for evaluating the productivity of intercrops. Agronomy Journal, 79(1), 15-22. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1987.00021962007900010004x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  19. İptaş, S., & Yılmaz, M. (1998). Tokat şartlarında yetiştirilen değişik Macar fiği + arpa karışım oranlarının verim ve kaliteye etkileri. Anadolu Ege Tarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü Dergisi, 8(2), 106-114. [Google Scholar]
  20. Konak, C., Çelen, A. E., Turgut, İ., & Yılmaz, R. (1997). Fiğin arpa, yulaf ve tritikale ile saf ve karışık ekimlerinin ot verimleri ile diğer bazı özellikleri üzerinde araştırmalar. Türkiye II. Tarla Bitkileri Kongresi Bildiriler Kitabı, Türkiye. pp. 1197. [Google Scholar]
  21. Lunnan, T. (1989). Barley-pea mixtures for whole crop forage. Effects of different cultural practices on yield and quality. Norwegian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(1), 57-71. [Google Scholar]
  22. Malik, D. S. (1969). Effects of various factors on yield and yield components in wheat and soybeans. [Ph.D. Thesis. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign]. [Google Scholar]
  23. Moore, K. J., & Cherney, J. H. (1986). Digestion kinetics of sequentially extracted cell wall components of forages. Crop Science, 26(6), 1230-1235. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1986.0011183X002600060032x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  24. Moreira, N. (1989). The effect of seed rate and nitrogen fertilizer on the yield and nutritive value of oat-vetch mixture. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 112(1), 57-66. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600084100 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  25. Ramert, B. M., & Lennartsson, D. G. (2002). The use of mixed species cropping to manage pests and diseases-theory and practice. Proceedings of The Colloquium of Organic Researchers (COR) Conference, Wales, United Kingdom. pp. 207-210. [Google Scholar]
  26. Rao, M. R., Nair, P. K. R., & Ong, C. (1997). Biophysical interactions in tropical agroforestry systems. Agroforestry Systems, 38, 3-50. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005971525590 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  27. Roberts, C. A., Moore, K. J., & Johnson, K. D. (1989). Forage quality and yield of wheat-vetch at different stages of maturity and vetch seeding rates. Agronomy Journal, 81(1), 57-60. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1989.00021962008100010010x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  28. Robinson, R. G. (1969). Annual legume-grass mixtures for forage and seed. Agronomy Journal, 61(5), 759-761. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1969.00021962006100050032x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  29. Sanderson, M. A., & Wedin, W. F. (1989). Phenological stage and herbage quality relationships in temperate grasses and legumes. Agronomy Journal, 81(6), 864-869. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1989.00021962008100060005x [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  30. Semerci, A., & Kurt, C. (2006). Türkiye’de yem bitkileri tarımının önemi. Hasad Hayvancılık Dergisi, 21, 42-49. [Google Scholar]
  31. Sleper, D. A., & Roughan, P. G. (1984). Histology of several cool-season forage grasses digested by cellulase. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 27(2), 161-166. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288233.1984.10430416 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  32. Szumigalski, A., & Rene, V. (2005). Weed suppression and crop production in annual intercrops. Weed Science, 53(6), 813-825. https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-05-014R.1 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  33. Taiz, L., & Zeiger, E. (2008). Bitki fizyolojisi (üçüncü baskıdan çeviri). Çeviri Editörü: İ. Türkan, Palme Yayıncılık. [Google Scholar]
  34. Taş, N. (2010). Sulu şartlarda yazlık ve güzlük ekilen fiğ + buğday karışımlarında en uygun karışım oranı ve biçim zamanının belirlenmesi II. ot kalitesi. Anadolu Ege Tarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü Dergisi,20(2), 59-69. [Google Scholar]
  35. Tosun, F. (1996). Türkiye’de kaba üretiminde çayır-mera ve yem bitkileri yetiştiriciliğinin dünü, bugünü ve yarını. Türkiye 3. Çayır-Mera ve Yem Bitkileri Kongresi Bildiriler Kitabı, Türkiye. pp. 1-15. [Google Scholar]
  36. Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B., & Lewis, B. A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74(10), 3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  37. Wilson, J. R. (1993). Organization of forage plant tissues. In H. G. Jung, D. R. Buxton, R. D. Hatfield, & J. Ralph (Eds.), Forage cell wall structure and digestibility (pp. 1-32). American Society of Agronomy, Inc. [Google Scholar]
  38. Yağmur, M., & Kaydan, D. (2006). Different intercrop arrangements with lentil and barley under dryland condition. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 9(10), 1917-1922. 10.3923/pjbs.2006.1917.1922 [Google Scholar]